Makkah Royal Clock Tower Download PDF

Click an image to view larger version.
Height: Occupied
494.4 m / 1,622 ft
Height: To Tip
601 m / 1,972 ft
Height: Architectural
601 m / 1,972 ft
Makkah Royal Clock Tower Outline
Height: Observatory
484.4 m / 1,589 ft
Floors Above Ground
Floors Below Ground
# of Elevators
Top Elevator Speed
6 m/s
Tower GFA
310,638 m² / 3,343,680 ft²
Development GFA
1,575,820 m² / 16,961,985 ft²
# of Hotel Rooms


Official Name Makkah Royal Clock Tower
Name of Complex Abraj Al-Bait Endowment
Other Names King Abdul Aziz Endowment Tower, Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel
Structure Type Building
Status Completed
Country Saudi Arabia
City Mecca
Street Address & Map Makkah Haram
Building Function other / hotel
Structural Material steel/concrete
Proposed 2002
Construction Start 2002
Completion 2012
Rankings Click arrows to view the next taller/shorter buildings
Global Ranking #3 Tallest in the World
Regional Ranking #2 Tallest in Middle East
National Ranking #1 Tallest in Saudi Arabia
City Ranking #1 Tallest in Mecca

Companies Involved

Developer Saudi Bin Laden Group
Design Dar al-Handasah Shair & Partners; SL Rasch
Structural Engineer
Design Dar al-Handasah Shair & Partners; SL Rasch
Peer Review BuroHappold Engineering
MEP Engineer
Design Dar al-Handasah Shair & Partners
Project Manager Turner International LLC
Main Contractor Saudi Bin Laden Group
Other Consultant
Façade Curtain Wall Design and Consulting, Inc.
• Lighting Bartenbach; Har Hollands Lichtarchitect
• Wind Alan G. Davenport Wind Engineering Group; Wacker Ingenieure
Material Supplier
• Cladding Gurit; GUTMANN AG
• Construction Hoists Alimak Hek
• Crane STAHL CraneSystems GmbH
• Elevator KONE
• Sealants Dow Corning Corporation

About Makkah Royal Clock Tower

At the heart of the holiest Islamic city, Makkah Royal Clock Tower brings an air of modernization to the bustling historic center of Mecca. The tower was developed as a component of the King Abdulaziz Endowment Project and provides comfortable accommodations for devout Muslims that make the journey to the city every year during the Hajj period. It is conveniently located adjacent to the Grand Mosque, which can accommodate up to two million worshippers over the course of the event.

The clock tower stands in the center of a high-rise complex called Abraj Al-Bait. Six smaller high-rises surround it at heights varying and accommodate both residential and hotel uses. True to its name, four colossal clock faces are mounted near the top of the tower. These clocks hold the record for both the largest and highest in the world. At night, the clock faces are illuminated by one million LED lights that transform the tower into a green and white beacon. Writing is inscribed above each clock, with the words “God is the Greatest” on the north and south sides, while the Koran adorns the east and west sides. The spire of the tower features a spherical observation center at its base. The spire is capped with a shining mosaic gold crescent that weighs 35 metric tons. A number of cultural amenities are present in the upper levels of the tower, including a center for lunar observation and a cosmology museum.

Since a great deal of residents and guests in the tower perform prayers five times a day, innovative solutions were provided in the elevator systems that transport people in a smooth and efficient manner. Group control systems were implemented that adapt to the travel patterns of passengers, intelligently anticipating their general location and destination. Using this technology, up to 75,000 people can exit all seven buildings without issue.

CTBUH Initiatives

Vertical Transportation: Ascent & Acceleration
12 Sep 2017 – CTBUH Research

Top Company Rankings: The World’s 100 Tallest Buildings
13 Oct 2016 – CTBUH Research

CTBUH Releases Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2012
Dec 2012 – CTBUH Journal Paper

More Initiatives

CTBUH Initiatives Related to Makkah Royal Clock Tower

Vertical Transportation: Ascent & Acceleration
12 Sep 2017, Chicago – CTBUH Research
CTBUH partnered with Guinness World Records to identify the commercial building with the fastest elevator speeds and longest vertical runs.
Top Company Rankings: The World’s 100 Tallest Buildings
13 Oct 2016, Chicago – CTBUH Research
The Council is pleased to announce the Top Company Rankings for numerous disciplines as derived from the list of projects appearing in 100 of the World’s Tallest Buildings.
CTBUH Releases Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2012
Dec 2012 – CTBUH Journal Paper
For the first time in six years the number of tall buildings completed annually around the world declined as the effects of the global financial crisis became evident.
The Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the Era of the Megatall
8 Dec 2011, Chicago – CTBUH Research
Within this decade we will likely witness not only the world’s first kilometer-tall building, but also the completion of a significant number of buildings over 600 meters.

Global News

Makkah Clock Tower in Mecca to Open for Tourists After Hajj
18 Aug 2014 – The Makkah Clock Tower, the second tallest…

CTBUH: Top Ten Tall Building Stories of the Year
21 Dec 2012 – This was a pivotal year for the tall building…


The Protection of Buildings with High Pressure Water Mist
Oct 2011 – Stefan Kratzmeir, FOGTEC Fire Protection

Research Papers

The Middle East: 20 Years of Building Skyscrapers
Nov 2013 – CTBUH Journal, 2013 Issue IV

Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2012
Dec 2012 – CTBUH Journal, 2013 Issue I

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the Era of the Megatall
18 Jan 2012 – CTBUH Journal, 2012 Issue I

To submit more information or donate images for this project, please use our submission portal.