74
Global
Height rank

85 Sky Tower

Kaohsiung
Height
1
To Tip:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

378 m / 1,240 ft
2
Architectural:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

347.5 m / 1,140 ft
3
Occupied:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

341 m / 1,119 ft
1 2 3 85 Sky Tower Outline
Floors
Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

85
Below Ground

The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

5
Height 347.5 m / 1,140 ft
Floors 85
Official Name
The current legal building name.

85 Sky Tower

Other Names
Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc.

Tuntex Sky Tower, Kaohsiung 85 Tower, T & C Tower

Type
CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building

Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished

Completed

Completion

1997

Country/Region
Taiwan
City
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Kaohsiung

Function
A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

hotel / office / retail

Structural Material
Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

steel

Height
Architectural
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

347.5 m / 1,140 ft

To Tip
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).
378.0 m / 1,240 ft
Occupied
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.
341.0 m / 1,119 ft
Observatory
341.0 m / 1,119 ft
Floors Above Ground
The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

85

Floors Below Ground
The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

5

# of Elevators
Number of Elevators refers to the total number of elevator cars (not shafts) contained within a particular building (including public, private and freight elevators).

55

Top Elevator Speed
Top Elevator Speed refers to the top speed capable of being achieved by an elevator within a particular building, measured in meters per second.

10 m/s

Tower GFA
Tower GFA refers to the total gross floor area within the tower footprint, not including adjoining podiums, connected buildings or other towers within the development.

306,337 m² / 3,297,384 ft²

Rankings
#
74
Tallest in the World
#
45
Tallest in Asia
#
2
Tallest in Taiwan
#
1
Tallest in Kaohsiung
#
36
Tallest Mixed-use Building in the World
#
28
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Asia
#
1
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Taiwan
#
1
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Kaohsiung
#
4
Tallest Steel Building in the World
#
1
Tallest Steel Building in Asia
#
1
Tallest Steel Building in Taiwan
#
1
Tallest Steel Building in Kaohsiung
Construction Schedule
1994

Construction Start

1997

Completed

Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Vertical Transportation
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Construction Hoists
Owner/Developer
Chien Tai Cement Corporation, Tuntex Group
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Evergreen Consulting Engineering; T.Y. Lin international
MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Continental Engineering Consultants, Inc.; William Tao & Associates, Inc.
Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Acoustics
Shen Milsom Wilke, Inc.
Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Heitmann & Associates, Inc.
Façade Maintenance
Stetson-Harza
Vertical Transportation
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Construction Hoists
Fire Proofing
Grace Construction Products

CTBUH Initiatives

CTBUH Study Examines Tallest Buildings with Dampers

22 August 2018 - CTBUH Research

Vertical Transportation: Ascent & Acceleration

12 September 2017 - CTBUH Research

Videos

04 March 2008 | Kaohsiung

Peer Review in the Foundation Design of the World's Tallest Buildings

Clyde Baker and Tony Keifer, AECOM, highlighted the advantages of having a peer reviewer involved in the foundation design from the start of the project...

Research

03 March 2008

The Role of Peer Review in the Foundation Design of the World’s Tallest Buildings

Clyde N. Baker, Jr., Tony A. Kiefer, Steven W. Nicoson & Khaldoun Fahoum, STS Consultants, Ltd.

This paper presents the authors’ views based on experiences on the role of peer review in the cost effective foundation design of very tall buildings....

About 85 Sky Tower

85 Sky Tower, located in the Lingya District of Kaohsiung, Taiwan, is one of the most architecturally distinct supertall skyscrapers ever completed. The building has a prong-shaped design incorporating two elevated podiums that support a pagoda-inspired tower. Each of the three vertical elements feature a tall central atrium, which facilitate the entry of sunlight, and allows greater communication between office units. The unique design of the building leaves a substantial space below the central tower, effectively creating an aperture in the building. As it stands, the building mimics the shape of the Chinese character “gao,” which means “tall” and is the first character of the city’s name.

The whole building is erected on a podium that is raised high enough to incorporate a tunnel underneath. Internally, the building is constructed around eight separate cores, allowing easy access to and through the building’s facilities. Each programmatic area of the building is independently designed, with separate entrances. The tower gains its basic verticality form the eight elevator shafts located in each core.

Numerous adornments augment the outward appearance of the tower. Pagoda-inspired shapes crown the top of each prong along with the main tower, which itself has a small spire. Though clad mainly in glass, the building utilizes different materials and colors to delineate certain sections of its façade. Dark shaded glass makes up the majority of the skin, but extruding volumes are clad in lighter glass, creating a textured appearance.

85 Sky Tower manages to simultaneously appear modern and forward thinking while also incorporating ancient Chinese principles of geomancy. Despite its modern design, it is unquestionably Chinese in flavor and reflective of historical Asian architecture. Its forward thinking—yet historically attuned—design makes it a singular and incomparable building.

22 August 2018

CTBUH Study Examines Tallest Buildings with Dampers

CTBUH has released a Tall Buildings in Numbers (TBIN) interactive data study on the world's tallest buildings with dampers.

12 September 2017

Vertical Transportation: Ascent & Acceleration

CTBUH partnered with Guinness World Records to identify the commercial building with the fastest elevator speeds and longest vertical runs.

13 October 2016

The Council is pleased to announce the Top Company Rankings for numerous disciplines as derived from the list of projects appearing in 100 of the World’s Tallest Buildings.

25 February 2016

CITAB and CTBUH are pleased to announce the award recipients for the inaugural CITAB-CTBUH 2016 China Tall Building Awards.

29 April 2007

CTBUH / Nakheel Asia Tour Report

CTBUH collaborated with the Dubai-based developer Nakheel and architects Woods Bagot to facilitate a 5-nation tour of seminal tall buildings in south-east Asia.