1
Global
Height rank
Burj Khalifa
Dubai
Height
1
To Tip:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

829.8 m / 2,723 ft
2
Architectural:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

828 m / 2,717 ft
3
Occupied:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

585.4 m / 1,921 ft
1 2 3 Burj Khalifa Outline
Floors
Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

163
Below Ground

The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

1
Height 828 m / 2716.5 ft
Floors 163
Official Name

The current legal building name.

Burj Khalifa
Other Names

Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc.

Burj Dubai
Type

CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building
Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished
Completed, 2010
Country

The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of Country, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

City

The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Function

A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

office / residential / hotel
Structural Material

Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

steel/concrete
Official Website
Architectural

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

828 m / 2716.5 ft
To Tip

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

829.8 m / 2722.6 ft
Occupied

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

585.4 m / 1920.5 ft
Observatory
555.7 m / 1823.2 ft
Floors Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

163
Floors Below Ground

The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

1
# of Apartments

Number of Apartments refers to the total number of residential units (including both rental units and condominiums) contained within a particular building.

900
# of Hotel Rooms

Number of Hotel Rooms refers to the total number of hotel rooms contained within a particular building.

304
# of Parking Spaces

Number of Parking Spaces refers to the total number of car parking spaces contained within a particular building.

2957
# of Elevators

Number of Elevators refers to the total number of elevator cars (not shafts) contained within a particular building (including public, private and freight elevators).

58
Tower GFA

Tower GFA refers to the total gross floor area within the tower footprint, not including adjoining podiums, connected buildings or other towers within the development.

309,473 m² / 3,331,140 ft²
Rankings
#
1
Tallest in the World
#
1
Tallest in Middle East
#
1
Tallest in United Arab Emirates
#
1
Tallest in Dubai
#
1
Tallest Mixed-use Building in the World
#
1
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Middle East
#
1
Tallest Mixed-use Building in United Arab Emirates
#
1
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Dubai
#
1
Tallest Mixed-material Building in the World
#
1
Tallest Mixed-material Building in Middle East
#
1
Tallest Mixed-material Building in United Arab Emirates
#
1
Tallest Mixed-material Building in Dubai
Construction Schedule
2003

Proposed

2004

Construction Start

2010

Completed

Owner/Developer
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

Project Manager

The CTBUH lists a project manager when a specific firm has been commissioned to oversee this aspect of a tall building’s design/construction. When the project management efforts are handled by the developer, main contract, or architect, this field will be omitted.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Building Monitoring
Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Foundation
Landscape
Vertical Transportation
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Cladding
Façade Maintenance Equipment
Fire Proofing
Formwork
Paint/Coating
Owner/Developer
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

Project Manager

The CTBUH lists a project manager when a specific firm has been commissioned to oversee this aspect of a tall building’s design/construction. When the project management efforts are handled by the developer, main contract, or architect, this field will be omitted.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Samsung C&T Corporation; Arabtec; Besix
Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Acoustics
Marsh/PMK International, LLC
Artist
Jaume Plensa
Building Monitoring
Civil
CBM Engineers; Coalco
Construction Technology
CTL Group; Opening Solutions, Inc.
Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Façade Maintenance
Lee Herzog Consulting
Food Service
Trend Foodservice Design & Consulting
Foundation
Interiors
Crystal Fountains Inc.; Hirsch Bedner Associates
Landscape
WET; SWA Group
Lighting
Speirs and Major; Fisher Marantz Stone
Parking
Walker Parking Consultants
Quantity Surveyor
Omnium International Ltd.
Security
Emrill Services LLC
Vertical Transportation
Way Finding
Square Peg Design
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Cladding
Waagner Biro; JORDAHL; HALFEN; Al Ghurair
Concrete
Unimix
Façade Maintenance Equipment
Fire Proofing
Formwork
Interior Partition
Dorma
Lighting
B-K Lighting; Designed Architectural Lighting; ERCO GmbH; Lucent Lighting; Oldham Lighting Projects Ltd; Philips Lighting; Tectronics; Zonca International Srl
Paint/Coating

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Global Icon Award 2010 Winner

2010 CTBUH Awards

Innovation Award 2015 Award of Excellence

2015 CTBUH Awards

10 Year Award 2020 Award of Excellence

2020 CTBUH Awards

CTBUH Initiatives

The Middle East: 30+ Years of Building Tall

28 November 2018 - CTBUH Research

Burj Khalifa to Host 2018 Conference Opening VIP Reception

4 April 2018 - CTBUH News

Videos

22 October 2018 | Dubai

The Future of Tall Building Technology

Since their earliest form, tall buildings have stood as technological marvels, reflecting the latest advancements in materials, methodologies, and tools. These two technologies continue to...

Research

12 January 2021

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2020

CTBUH Research

The tall buildings completed in 2020 have pushed the global average height of the 100 tallest buildings to 399 meters. Across the year, 14 buildings...

About Burj Khalifa

Burj Khalifa has redefined what is possible in the design and engineering of supertall buildings. By combining cutting-edge technologies and cultural influences, the building serves as a global icon that is both a model for future urban centers and speaks to the global movement towards compact, livable urban areas. The Tower and its surrounding neighborhood are more centralized than any other new development in Dubai. At the center of a new downtown neighborhood, Burj Khalifa’s mixed-use program focuses the area’s development density and provides direct connections to mass transit systems.

Burj Khalifa’s architecture has embodied references to Islamic architecture and yet reflects the modern global community it is designed to serve. The building’s Y-shaped plan provides the maximum amount of perimeter for windows in living spaces without developing internal unusable area. As the tapering tower rises, setbacks occur at the ends of each “wing” in an upward spiraling pattern that decreases the mass of the tower as the height increases. These setbacks were modeled in the wind tunnel to minimize wind forces. The design of the Tower was significantly influenced by its performance with respect to the wind, in both its shaping and orientation. The building went through many wind tunnel tests and design iterations to develop optimum performance.

The exterior cladding, comprised of aluminum and textured stainless steel spandrel panels, was designed to withstand Dubai’s extreme temperatures during the summer months by using a low-E glass to provide enhanced thermal insulation. Vertical polished stainless steel fins were added to accentuate Burj Khalifa’s height and slenderness.

The unprecedented height of the Burj Khalifa required it to be an innovative building in many ways. Design techniques, building systems, and construction practices all required rethinking, and in many cases new applications, to create a practical and efficient building.

The structural system, termed a “buttressed core,” is designed to efficiently support a supertall building utilizing a strong central core, buttressed by its three wings. The vertical structure is tied together at the mechanical floors through outrigger walls in order to maximize the building’s stiffness. The result is an efficient system where all of the building’s vertical structure is used to support both gravity and lateral loads.

The Tower incorporates numerous enhancements to the fire and life safety systems, including “lifeboat” operation for elevators which allows for them to be used for controlled evacuation under certain situations, decreasing total evacuation time by 45% over stairs alone.

Due to its height, the building is able to utilize ventilation where cooler air temperatures, reduced air density, and reduced relative humidity at the top of the building allow for “sky-sourced” fresh air. When air is drawn in at the top of the building, it requires less energy for air conditioning, ventilation, and dehumidification. The building’s height also generates a substantial stack effect due to the thermal differences between the buildings’ interior and exterior, but Burj Khalifa was designed to passively control these forces, reducing the need for mechanical means of pressurization.

Burj Khalifa has one of the largest condensate recovery systems in the world. Collecting water from air conditioning condensate discharge prevents it from entering the wastewater stream and reduces the need for municipal potable water.

The tower’s management systems utilize smart lighting and mechanical controls which lower operational costs, allow for a more efficient use of building resources and services and better control of internal comfort conditions. Individual electric energy monitoring systems enable energy optimization of the tower’s systems over its lifetime.

With over 185,800 sq m (2,000,000 sq ft) of interior space designed for Burj Khalifa, planning of the building’s interior space began at the earliest stages of its design focusing on three main goals—to recognize and acknowledge the building’s height, to integrate its structural and architectural rationale, and to appreciate the locale’s heritage, history and culture. The interiors of the uppermost floors were designed to reflect celestial influences. This is in contrast to the lower floors, which are inspired by natural elements.

An art program for the Tower was developed in which over 500 individual pieces of art were placed and specified throughout the Tower. The premier featured art piece resides in the tower’s residential lobby. This sculpture, completed by the internationally renowned artist Jaume Plensa, is entitled “World Voices” and is composed of 196 cymbals supported by stainless steel rods rising from two pools similar to reeds in a lake. The cymbals represent the 196 countries of the world and reflect that the Burj Khalifa was a result of a collaboration of many people from around the world.

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Global Icon Award 2010 Winner

2010 CTBUH Awards

Innovation Award 2015 Award of Excellence

2015 CTBUH Awards

10 Year Award 2020 Award of Excellence

2020 CTBUH Awards

Best Tall Building Middle East & Africa 2010 Winner

2010 CTBUH Awards

Quick Facts

22 October 2018 | Dubai

The Future of Tall Building Technology

Since their earliest form, tall buildings have stood as technological marvels, reflecting the latest advancements in materials, methodologies, and tools. These two technologies continue to...

16 March 2017 | Dubai

Building Tall Skyscraper Lecture Series: How High Can We Go?

Thursday, March 16, 2017. Chicago, United States of America. Hosted in collaboration with the Chicago Architecture Foundation, the first lecture of the series Building Tall...

18 October 2016 | Dubai

CTBUH 2016 China Conference - Panel,"Tall Buildings and Context: How High Can We Go and Why Should We?"

Tuesday, October 18, 2016. Shenzhen, China. Ron Klemencic, Magnusson Klemencic Associates; Karl Almstead, Turner Construction Company; Andrew Nicholson, CBRE; Jon Pickard, Pickard Chilton; Ian Smith,...

18 October 2016 | Dubai

CTBUH Video Interview – Jon Pickard

Jon Pickard of Pickard Chilton is interviewed by Chris Bentley during the 2016 CTBUH China Conference. Jon discusses the local economic impacts of tall buildings.

16 October 2016 | Dubai

CTBUH Video Interview – Abrar Sheriff

Abrar Sheriff of Turner International is interviewed by Chris Bentley during the 2016 CTBUH China Conference. Abrar discusses the planning and construction process for supertall...

12 November 2015 | Dubai

Interview: Nicholas Billotti

Nicholas Billotti, Chairman, Turner International LLC, discusses the contruction industry with Chris Bentley, during the 2015 CTBUH Awards Symposium at the Illinois Institute of Technology....

26 October 2015 | Dubai

Interview: Adrian Smith

Adrian Smith of Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture is interviewed by Chris Bentley during the 2015 CTBUH New York Conference at the Grand Hyatt...

06 November 2014 | Dubai

Fazlur R. Khan Lifetime Achievement Award: Wind Engineering the World’s Tallest

Peter Irwin, one of the founding partners of Rowan Williams Davies and Irwin Inc. (RWDI), has led wind engineering on many of the world’s tallest...

16 September 2014 | Dubai

Blades of Steel: Understanding the Limits of Metal Façade Design

Metal claddings frequently skin our tall buildings. They provide the texture and shine that help distinguish one glass tower from the next. Like the fabric...

16 September 2014 | Dubai

Interview: Jon Galsworthy

Jon Galsworthy of RWDI is interviewed by Chris Bentley during the 2014 CTBUH Shanghai Conference at the Jin Mao Tower. Jon discusses the sustainability of...

12 January 2021

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2020

CTBUH Research

The tall buildings completed in 2020 have pushed the global average height of the 100 tallest buildings to 399 meters. Across the year, 14 buildings...

25 June 2020

Curtain Wall Façades on the New Generation of Supertall Buildings Present and Future Directions

Sae Hwang Oh, Adrian Smith + Gordon Gill Architecture

Beginning in the late 19th century, construction of skyscrapers spread throughout Chicago, New York City, and then the world as demand of space in buildings...

20 March 2020

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Predictions vs. Reality

CTBUH Research

In the first edition of the 2012 Journal, CTBUH published a Tall Buildings in Numbers study titled Tallest 20 in 2020: Era of the Megatall—The...

20 March 2020

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Then and Now

CTBUH Research

This research paper undertakes a review of the 2012 report by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, “Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the...

30 January 2020

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2019

CTBUH Research

In 2019, 126 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This was a 13.7 percent decrease from 146 in 2018. The total number...

28 October 2019

Fifty Years of Fire Safety In Supertall Buildings

Peter Weismantle, AS+GG; James Antell, Telgian Engineering & Consulting

As international design teams participated in the development of high-rise structures around the world, many of the concepts of fire-safe design first introduced in the...

29 July 2019

Highest Special-Purpose Spaces

Since humans first began constructing tall buildings, history has been cluttered with claims of all manner of “highest” records. In this study, we examine those...

31 January 2019

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2018

CTBUH Research

In 2018, 143 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This is a slight decrease from 2017’s record-breaking total of 147, and it...

20 October 2018

The Middle East: 30+ Years of Building Tall

CTBUH Research

The Middle East region is hosting its first CTBUH International Conference since 2008. In that year, there were 119 completed buildings of 150 meters or...

20 October 2018

Towering Aspirations in Dubai and Beyond

Mohamed Ali Alabbar, Emaar Properties

In 2008, CTBUH held its Eighth World Congress in Dubai, at which time the world’s tallest building, the Burj Khalifa, was still under construction. His...

28 November 2018

The Middle East: 30+ Years of Building Tall

CTBUH has released a Tall Buildings in Numbers (TBIN) interactive data study examining the relationship between high-rise growth and population in the Middle East.

4 April 2018

CTBUH is pleased to announce that Emaar Properties is supporting the 2018 Conference as Diamond sponsor, and will host the Opening VIP Reception at Burj Khalifa.

12 September 2017

Vertical Transportation: Ascent & Acceleration

CTBUH partnered with Guinness World Records to identify the commercial building with the fastest elevator speeds and longest vertical runs.

28 August 2017

Shanghai Tower Completes Art Space Atop Damper

Officials of Shanghai Tower opened the building's highly-anticipated Summit 632 space, making it the second-highest occupiable space in the world after the Burj Khalifa, Dubai.

5 July 2017

Asia Pacific Seminar Series

CTBUH Singapore, in coordination with CTBUH Malaysia and CTBUH Thailand, hosted a multi-city seminar on sustainable design in Singapore, Kuala Lumpur, and Bangkok.

16 May 2017

CTBUH Explores Possibility of 2018 Middle East Conference

CTBUH Executive Director Dr. Antony Wood recently traveled to Dubai and Jeddah on a fact-finding mission to explore the possibility of holding a conference in the region in 2018.

16 March 2017

First CAF-CTBUH Lecture Series Draws Crowd, Rave Reviews

The CTBUH, in conjunction with the Chicago Architecture Foundation (CAF), held the first of the four-part “Building Tall” lecture series at the CAF lecture hall.

19 December 2016

Top 12 Happenings of 2016, Month-by-Month

Check out the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat's top stories of 2016 for each month and take a look ahead with the Council’s monthly predictions for 2017.

13 October 2016

The Council is pleased to announce the Top Company Rankings for numerous disciplines as derived from the list of projects appearing in 100 of the World’s Tallest Buildings.

13 January 2016

Performance and Behavior of Tall Buildings for Wind Loads

CTBUH YPC hosted an event on wind engineering and understanding its effects on tall buildings as well as to provide insight into the engineering efforts in design of shorter buildings.