3
Global
Height rank
Makkah Royal Clock Tower
Mecca
Height
1
To Tip:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

601 m / 1,972 ft
2
Architectural:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

601 m / 1,972 ft
3
Occupied:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

494.4 m / 1,622 ft
Floors
Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

120
Below Ground

The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

3
1 2 3 Makkah Royal Clock Tower Outline
Height 601 m / 1971.8 ft
Floors 120
Official Name

The current legal building name.

Makkah Royal Clock Tower
Other Names

Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc.

King Abdul Aziz Endowment Tower, Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel
Name of Complex

A complex is a group of buildings which are designed and built as pieces of a greater development.

Type

CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building
Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished
Completed, 2012
Country

The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of Country, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

City

The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Address
Function

A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

other / hotel
Structural Material

Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

steel/concrete
Architectural

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

601 m / 1971.8 ft
To Tip

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

601 m / 1971.8 ft
Occupied

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

494.4 m / 1622.2 ft
Observatory
484.4 m / 1589.1 ft
Floors Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

120
Floors Below Ground

The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

3
# of Hotel Rooms

Number of Hotel Rooms refers to the total number of hotel rooms contained within a particular building.

858
# of Elevators

Number of Elevators refers to the total number of elevator cars (not shafts) contained within a particular building (including public, private and freight elevators).

96
Tower GFA

Tower GFA refers to the total gross floor area within the tower footprint, not including adjoining podiums, connected buildings or other towers within the development.

310,638 m² / 3,343,680 ft²
Rankings
#
3
Tallest in the World
#
2
Tallest in Middle East
#
1
Tallest in Saudi Arabia
#
1
Tallest in Mecca
#
3
Tallest Mixed-use Building in the World
#
2
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Middle East
#
1
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Saudi Arabia
#
1
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Mecca
#
2
Tallest Mixed-material Building in the World
#
2
Tallest Mixed-material Building in Middle East
#
1
Tallest Mixed-material Building in Saudi Arabia
#
1
Tallest Mixed-material Building in Mecca
Construction Schedule
2002

Proposed

2002

Construction Start

2012

Completed

Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Peer Review

The Peer Review Engineer traditionally comments on the information produced by another party, and to render second opinions, but not to initiate what the design looks like from the start.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Project Manager

The CTBUH lists a project manager when a specific firm has been commissioned to oversee this aspect of a tall building’s design/construction. When the project management efforts are handled by the developer, main contract, or architect, this field will be omitted.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Construction Hoists
Elevator
Paint/Coating
Developer
Saudi Bin Laden Group
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Peer Review

The Peer Review Engineer traditionally comments on the information produced by another party, and to render second opinions, but not to initiate what the design looks like from the start.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Project Manager

The CTBUH lists a project manager when a specific firm has been commissioned to oversee this aspect of a tall building’s design/construction. When the project management efforts are handled by the developer, main contract, or architect, this field will be omitted.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Saudi Bin Laden Group
Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Lighting
Bartenbach; Har Hollands Lichtarchitect
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Cladding
Gurit; GUTMANN AG
Construction Hoists
Crane
STAHL CraneSystems GmbH
Elevator
Paint/Coating

CTBUH Initiatives

The Middle East: 30+ Years of Building Tall

28 November 2018 - CTBUH Research

Vertical Transportation: Ascent & Acceleration

12 September 2017 - CTBUH Research

Videos

12 October 2011 | Mecca

The Protection of Buildings with High Pressure Water Mist

The protection of high rise buildings with a state-of-the-art fire suppression system is always considered as a challenge. Conventional sprinkler systems are known for decades...

Research

12 January 2021

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2020

CTBUH Research

The tall buildings completed in 2020 have pushed the global average height of the 100 tallest buildings to 399 meters. Across the year, 14 buildings...

About Makkah Royal Clock Tower

At the heart of the holiest Islamic city, Makkah Royal Clock Tower brings an air of modernization to the bustling historic center of Mecca. The tower was developed as a component of the King Abdulaziz Endowment Project and provides comfortable accommodations for devout Muslims that make the journey to the city every year during the Hajj period. It is conveniently located adjacent to the Grand Mosque, which can accommodate up to two million worshippers over the course of the event.

The clock tower stands in the center of a high-rise complex called Abraj Al-Bait. Six smaller high-rises surround it at heights varying and accommodate both residential and hotel uses. True to its name, four colossal clock faces are mounted near the top of the tower. These clocks hold the record for both the largest and highest in the world. At night, the clock faces are illuminated by one million LED lights that transform the tower into a green and white beacon. Writing is inscribed above each clock, with the words “God is the Greatest” on the north and south sides, while the Koran adorns the east and west sides. The spire of the tower features a spherical observation center at its base. The spire is capped with a shining mosaic gold crescent that weighs 35 metric tons. A number of cultural amenities are present in the upper levels of the tower, including a center for lunar observation and a cosmology museum.

Since a great deal of residents and guests in the tower perform prayers five times a day, innovative solutions were provided in the elevator systems that transport people in a smooth and efficient manner. Group control systems were implemented that adapt to the travel patterns of passengers, intelligently anticipating their general location and destination. Using this technology, up to 75,000 people can exit all seven buildings without issue.

12 October 2011 | Mecca

The Protection of Buildings with High Pressure Water Mist

The protection of high rise buildings with a state-of-the-art fire suppression system is always considered as a challenge. Conventional sprinkler systems are known for decades...

12 January 2021

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2020

CTBUH Research

The tall buildings completed in 2020 have pushed the global average height of the 100 tallest buildings to 399 meters. Across the year, 14 buildings...

20 March 2020

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Predictions vs. Reality

CTBUH Research

In the first edition of the 2012 Journal, CTBUH published a Tall Buildings in Numbers study titled Tallest 20 in 2020: Era of the Megatall—The...

30 January 2020

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2019

CTBUH Research

In 2019, 126 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This was a 13.7 percent decrease from 146 in 2018. The total number...

29 July 2019

Highest Special-Purpose Spaces

Since humans first began constructing tall buildings, history has been cluttered with claims of all manner of “highest” records. In this study, we examine those...

31 January 2019

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2018

CTBUH Research

In 2018, 143 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This is a slight decrease from 2017’s record-breaking total of 147, and it...

20 October 2018

The Middle East: 30+ Years of Building Tall

CTBUH Research

The Middle East region is hosting its first CTBUH International Conference since 2008. In that year, there were 119 completed buildings of 150 meters or...

01 February 2018

The Global Tall Building Picture: Impact of 2017

CTBUH Staff, CTBUH

In 2017, 144 buildings of 200 meters’ height or greater were completed. This is the fourth record-breaking year in a row, and it brings the...

14 November 2013

The Middle East: 20 Years of Building Skyscrapers

CTBUH Research

Twenty years ago, the Middle East contained only one skyscraper over 150 meters in height. It is now estimated that by the end of 2015...

31 December 2012

Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2012

Kevin Brass, Antony Wood & Marty Carver, CTBUH

For the first time in six years the number of tall buildings completed annually around the world declined as the effects of the global financial...

18 January 2012

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the Era of the Megatall

Nathaniel Hollister & Antony Wood, CTBUH

Within this decade we will likely witness not only the world’s first kilometer-tall building, but also the completion of a significant number of buildings over...

28 November 2018

The Middle East: 30+ Years of Building Tall

CTBUH has released a Tall Buildings in Numbers (TBIN) interactive data study examining the relationship between high-rise growth and population in the Middle East.

12 September 2017

Vertical Transportation: Ascent & Acceleration

CTBUH partnered with Guinness World Records to identify the commercial building with the fastest elevator speeds and longest vertical runs.

13 October 2016

The Council is pleased to announce the Top Company Rankings for numerous disciplines as derived from the list of projects appearing in 100 of the World’s Tallest Buildings.

31 December 2012

Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2012

Makkah Royal Clock Tower Hotel completed at 601 meters as the tallest building in 2012 and the second tallest building in the world. It is only the world’s second megatall.

31 December 2012

For the first time in six years the number of tall buildings completed annually around the world declined as the effects of the global financial crisis became evident.

8 December 2011

The Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the Era of the Megatall

Within this decade we will likely witness not only the world’s first kilometer-tall building, but also the completion of a significant number of buildings over 600 meters.