Reflections at Keppel Bay Tower 2A

Singapore
Height 115.9 m / 380 ft
Floors 23
Official Name
The current legal building name.

Reflections at Keppel Bay Tower 2A

Name of Complex
A complex is a group of buildings which are designed and built as pieces of a greater development.

Reflections at Keppel Bay

Type
CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building

Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished

Completed, 2011

Country
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of Country, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Singapore

City
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Singapore

Postal Code

098409

Function
A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

residential

Structural Material
Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

concrete

Official Website

Reflections at Keppel Bay

Height
Architectural
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

115.9 m / 380 ft

To Tip
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).
115.9 m / 380 ft
Occupied
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.
80.3 m / 263 ft
Floors Above Ground
The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

23

Floors Below Ground
The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

2

Top Elevator Speed
Top Elevator Speed refers to the top speed capable of being achieved by an elevator within a particular building, measured in meters per second.

3 m/s

Construction Schedule
2005

Proposed

2007

Construction Start

2011

Completed

Architect
Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Elevator
Owner/Developer
Keppel Land International Ltd
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Studio Daniel Libeskind
Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

T.Y. Lin international
MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Woh Hup Pte Ltd
Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Stormwater Management
Fast Flow Systems Pte Ltd
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Cladding
JORDAHL
Elevator

CTBUH Initiatives

Reflections at Keppel Bay Chosen as Featured Building

15 November 2012 - Featured Building

About Reflections at Keppel Bay Tower 2A

Sited on the scenic Keppel Harbor in Singapore, the Reflections at Keppel Bay complex took its inspiration from the strong elemental forces of the area. Surrounded by water and the lush vegetation of the region, the six towers of the complex seek to provide not only views from each of its residential units to the natural beauty beyond, but to also create an intriguing formal juxtaposition between the towers and their surroundings.

The project brief required that the development achieve a density to meet the client’s goals on the available site, as real-estate costs in Singapore are high. To meet the number of desired units, a set of differing typologies was developed to provide variety in the design and create a unique development while creating a dense complex. Eleven low-rise villas of 6–8 floors each occupy part of the site, creating a gradient to the height of the towers. The tower pairs are united with sky decks to provide green space and facilitate connections between them.

The nine sky decks in the complex range from 15 to 24 meters in span, and are full-story trussed steel matrix construction which were assembled at ground level and were strand-jacked in sequence from the highest to the lowest level, to finally maneuver the structures into place. The decks are landscaped, connecting them with the densely planted environment around it and providing a unique experience of a garden in the sky for residents.

The forms and materials of the towers are intended to respond to the surrounding water and air, reflecting back the environment. The crown of each tower is made up of a complex lattice which evaporates into the air, creating a connection between the tower and the sky around it. Each crown, approximately 40 meters in height, is created from cold-rolled tubular steel sections. Within the crown structures are housed three levels of sky gardens that are integrated with the penthouse units. The façade treatment is of varying reflectivity, creating a stippled effect along each surface, much like the water around it.

The artful composition of ever-shifting building orientations, along with the differing building typologies, creates an airy, light-filled grouping of short and tall structures. These forms create an experience where each level feels unique as it is not in alignment with either the floor above or below. There are no residence types which are placed next to one another or seen from the same perspective; the result of this design is a fundamental shift in high-rise living where individuality and difference is not sacrificed.

Comprising more than 1,100 units, the complex is a neighborhood, and the architecture is intended to create a community for its residents. To support the community in a sustainable manner, several conservation measures were taken: energy-efficient lighting and appliances were installed; a rainwater harvesting system is used for irrigation; motion sensors and automatic plumbing fixtures were installed in public spaces; and a large amount of softscaping was employed to reduce heat reflection and improve rainwater collection, which was also in alignment with the goals of integrating the buildings with their context. The project earned Singapore’s Green Mark Gold Award through its implementation of sustainable strategies.