19
Global
Height rank

Zifeng Tower

Nanjing
Height
1
To Tip:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

450 m / 1,476 ft
2
Architectural:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

450 m / 1,476 ft
3
Occupied:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

316.6 m / 1,039 ft
Floors
Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

66
Below Ground

The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

5
1 2 3 Zifeng Tower Outline
Height 450.0 m / 1,476 ft
Floors 66
Official Name
The current legal building name.

Zifeng Tower

Other Names
Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc.

Nanjing Greenland Financial Center

Type
CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building

Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished

Completed

Completion

2010

Country
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of Country, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

China

City
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Nanjing

Function
A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

hotel / office

Structural Material
Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

composite

Core
Reinforced Concrete
Columns
Concrete Filled Steel
Floor Spanning
Steel
Official Website

Zifeng Tower

Height
Architectural
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

450.0 m / 1,476 ft

To Tip
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).
450.0 m / 1,476 ft
Occupied
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.
316.6 m / 1,039 ft
Observatory
271.8 m / 892 ft
Floors Above Ground
The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

66

Floors Below Ground
The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

5

# of Hotel Rooms
Number of Hotel Rooms refers to the total number of hotel rooms contained within a particular building.

450

# of Parking Spaces
Number of Parking Spaces refers to the total number of car parking spaces contained within a particular building.

1200

# of Elevators
Number of Elevators refers to the total number of elevator cars (not shafts) contained within a particular building (including public, private and freight elevators).

54

Top Elevator Speed
Top Elevator Speed refers to the top speed capable of being achieved by an elevator within a particular building, measured in meters per second.

7 m/s

Tower GFA
Tower GFA refers to the total gross floor area within the tower footprint, not including adjoining podiums, connected buildings or other towers within the development.

137,529 m² / 1,480,350 ft²

Rankings
#
19
Tallest in the World
#
14
Tallest in Asia
#
10
Tallest in China
#
1
Tallest in Nanjing
#
11
Tallest Mixed-use Building in the World
#
9
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Asia
#
7
Tallest Mixed-use Building in China
#
1
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Nanjing
#
16
Tallest Composite Building in the World
#
14
Tallest Composite Building in Asia
#
10
Tallest Composite Building in China
#
1
Tallest Composite Building in Nanjing
Construction Schedule
2004

Proposed

2005

Construction Start

2010

Completed

Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Landscape
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Elevator
Façade Maintenance Equipment
Owner/Developer
Greenland Group; Nanjing Guzzi Greenland Financial Center; Nanjing State Owned Assets
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Architect of Record

Usually takes on the balance of the architectural effort not executed by the "Design Architect," typically responsible for the construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc. May often be referred to as "Executive," "Associate," or "Local" Architect, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Architect of Record" exclusively.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Engineer of Record

The Engineer of Record takes the balance of the engineering effort not executed by the “Design Engineer,” typically responsible for construction documents, conforming to local codes, etc.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Access
CBRE
Landscape
Lighting
PHA Lighting Design
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Ceiling
Armstrong World Industries
Elevator
KONE; Schindler; Sematic S.r.l.
Façade Maintenance Equipment

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building Asia & Australasia 2010 Award of Excellence

2010 CTBUH Awards

CTBUH Initiatives

Top Company Rankings: The World’s 100 Tallest Buildings

13 October 2016 - CTBUH Research

Nanjing Regional Tour Report

20 September 2014 - Event

Videos

21 September 2012 | Nanjing

Advanced Supertall Building Design in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Climates

Climate adaptive design is a prerequisite for designing sustainable tall buildings. This presentation seeks to investigate currently available advanced design techniques and technologies by studying...

Research

20 March 2020

Interactive Study on The Tallest 20 in 2020: Then and Now

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About Zifeng Tower

Zifeng Tower is a mixed-use complex comprising of several buildings resting on two sites, parcels A1 and A2. Parcel A1 contains a podium connecting two towers. The taller 450m (1,476ft) tower consists of offices and hotels, and the tower contains purely office space. The shape and placement of the buildings are designed to echo the geometry of the existing roads and maximize exterior views of the city. The buildings’ composition maintains the east–west viewing corridors along East Beijing Road and provides a visual link to the nearby historical drum and bell towers.

Landscaping is a significant part of the complex as the buildings are set back from the street with several large landscaped, public open spaces. South of parcel A1, is a sunken garden that will connect to the future subway. There is also a roof garden at the top of the podium in parcel A1 to reduce the heat island effect. In addition to the ground level and podium garden spaces, the design incorporates sky gardens that wind their way up the façade, bringing the green all the way up the tower.

As one of the tallest structures in the world to date and being constructed in a seismic region, enhanced design measures and performance-based evaluations were utilized in order to obtain seismic review approval for the main tower. The critical parts of the lateral system were designed for earthquake forces between two and six times more than typically required by Chinese code. Additionally, a full 3-Dimensional Non-Linear Elasto-Plastic analysis for a 2,500-year earthquake was completed to determine the structural response and serviceability. A multi-stage axial shortening, creep and shrinkage analysis was also performed to evaluate the long-term load sharing between the central core and the perimeter of the Tower through the outrigger truss system.

The tower features a unique façade system, rather than a typical flush-glass curtain wall system; it is composed of offset modular panels that protrude in plan to create a distinctive texture to the building’s elevations. Each curtain wall unit is a triangle in plan and shifts a half module between each two floors. It creates a scaled effect and has a very unique visual appeal in catching the light and reflections of the city. The small edge of the triangle unit is a fixed perforated metal panel with a hidden operable panel behind it for natural ventilation and smoke exhaust. This will help to reduce mechanical ventilation energy usage during some transitional seasons. The long edge of each triangle unit consists of a high performance insulated low-E glass panel, to help to cut down the heat gain through the building façade.

The office tower is served by floor-by-floor, variable volume, supply air handling units with variable speed drive. Four pipe fan coil units are provided for hotel guest rooms. Gas fired steam boilers and chillers, and associated water pumps are located on the first basement level. Gas service is brought into the building for the boilers and for kitchens. The fire protection system for the building consists of a zoned combination automatic sprinkler and standpipe system in accordance with regulatory requirements for a fully sprinklered high-rise building in China.

The office tower is served by two banks of seven elevators, one bank for the low-rise office levels, and one for the high-rise office levels. Two service elevators are designated as fire elevators and serve all floors of the office tower (three separate service elevators will serve all floors of the hotel). The hotel portion of the main tower will be served by three express passenger elevators from the ground floor entrance lobby to the level 36 sky lobby, where five local passenger lifts will take guests up to the highest hotel level on 65.

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building Asia & Australasia 2010 Award of Excellence

2010 CTBUH Awards

21 September 2012 | Nanjing

Advanced Supertall Building Design in Hot-Summer and Cold-Winter Climates

Climate adaptive design is a prerequisite for designing sustainable tall buildings. This presentation seeks to investigate currently available advanced design techniques and technologies by studying...

20 September 2012 | Nanjing

Supertall Building Difficulties and Control Points

This presentation examines one of the world’s tallest buildings, the 450-meter Zifeng Tower, as a case study and integrates the speaker’s significant management experiences gained...

19 September 2012 | Nanjing

From Jin Mao to Kingdom: Search for an Asian Supertall Vernacular

This presentation presents the evolution of Mr. Smith’s career as a designer of supertall buildings, from Shanghai’s Jin Mao Tower, completed in 1999, to Kingdom...

03 November 2011 | Nanjing

Lynn S. Beedle Lifetime Achievement Award: 40 Years of Designing the Supertall

As one of the world’s foremost experts on supertall buildings, Adrian has contributed greatly to the development of this highly specialized building type. Adrian will...

10 October 2011 | Nanjing

The Evolution of an Idea

In this talk, Adrian Smith traces the origin of the skyscraper from the early 20th-century tripedal designs to beyond the world's next tallest building.

20 March 2020

Interactive Study on The Tallest 20 in 2020: Then and Now

CTBUH Research

This research paper undertakes a review of the 2012 report by the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat, “Tallest 20 in 2020: Entering the...

17 October 2016

SOM and China: Evolving Skyscraper Design Amid Rapid Urban Growth

Scott Duncan & Yue Zhu, SOM

China’s rapid urban and economic growth has challenged designers, engineers, and planners to innovate and collaborate to meet the needs of a changing country. Skidmore,...

23 September 2012

The Tallest 15 Cities in China

CTBUH Research

With over 1.3 billion citizens and a rapidly urbanizing population, China is developing tall buildings more than any other country globally. Currently it has 239...

19 September 2012

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Climate adaptive design is a prerequisite for designing sustainable tall buildings. With rapid globalization and urbanization, different kinds of techniques and technologies developed abroad are...

19 September 2012

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The paper traces the evolution of Mr. Smith’s career as a designer of supertall buildings, the Jin Mao Tower (1999) to Kingdom Tower, to be...

19 September 2012

Supertall Building Difficulties and Control Points

Zhao Hui Jia & Min Tang, Greenland Group

This paper takes the world’s seventh supertall, Zifeng Tower, as an example and integrates the authors’ management experiences in more than ten supertall buildings in...

31 December 2010

Tallest Buildings Completed in 2010

CTBUH Research

In a year dominated by news coverage of the new “World’s Tallest Building” – Burj Khalifa, Dubai – one may be surprised to learn that,...

13 October 2016

The Council is pleased to announce the Top Company Rankings for numerous disciplines as derived from the list of projects appearing in 100 of the World’s Tallest Buildings.

21 September 2014

Nanjing Regional Tour Report

After getting the high speed train from Shanghai, delegates toured the Suning Gulou Ruicheng project, followed by a trip to the rooftop of one of its 250-meter office buildings.

15 September 2013

Zifeng Tower Chosen as Featured Building

The triangulated, serrated façade treatment is interesting, adding depth and texture to the imposing form while allowing natural ventilation throughout.

23 September 2012

Nanjing Regional Tour Report: Redeveloping the "Southern Capital"

Nanjing, the venerable “Southern capital,” is in the midst of the type of redevelopment surge impacting many Chinese cities.

31 December 2010

CTBUH Releases Tallest Buildings Completed in 2010

In a year dominated by news coverage of the new “World’s Tallest Building” – Burj Khalifa, Dubai – one may be surprised to learn that, besides being the year in which a building first surpassed the 600, 700, and 800-meter thresholds, 2010 has seen the completion of more skyscrapers than any previous year in history.