Merdeka 118, Kuala Lumpur, the tallest building of 2023 CTBUH 2023 Year in Review
The tallest building of 2023: Merdeka 118, Kuala Lumpur, 678.9 meters.
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Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2023

Published: January 31, 2024

Key Takeaways:

2023 was a record-breaking year for tall building completions, with 177 buildings of 200 meters or greater in height completing.

This is up 14.2 percent from 2022, which had 155 such completions. Globally, the world has amassed a total of 2,269 two-hundred-meter-plus buildings and 232 supertall (300 meters and taller) buildings through 2023. For perspective, the first 100 of these supertall buildings were completed by 2015, and the other 132 were built in the seven years since. Additionally, the first 1,000 buildings of 200 meters and greater in height were completed by 2015, a figure that has now more than doubled.

NOTE: This report reflects completion statistics as of the end of 2023. Data will be continuously updated as CTBUH confirms more building completions throughout 2024. The last building to be updated on this page was on March 1, 2024.

Completions Timeline
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The tallest building to complete in 2023 was Merdeka 118, in Kuala Lumpur, at 678.9 meters. This is the fourth time that Kuala Lumpur has completed the tallest building of the year since 1990, with its last record-holding building being Menara TM, 310 meters, which was completed in 2001. Kuala Lumpur now has 62 buildings of 200 meters or greater in height since its first, Menara Maybank, completed in 1988.

The record 177 completions represents a full 8.6% jump from the previous record of 163 completions set in 2018.

2023 Completions List
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Rank Name City Floors m ft
1 Merdeka 118 Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 118 678.9 2227
2 Wuhan Greenland Center Wuhan, China 101 475.6 1560
3 Ping An Finance Center Tower 1 Jinan, China 62 360 1181
4 Huiyun Center Shenzhen, China 80 359.2 1178
= 5 Il Primo Tower Dubai, United Arab Emirates 79 356 1168
= 5 Galaxy World Tower 1 Shenzhen, China 71 356 1168
= 5 Galaxy World Tower 2 Shenzhen, China 71 356 1168
8 Uptown Tower Dubai, United Arab Emirates 77 333.4 1094
9 Wuhan Yangtze River Shipping Center Wuhan, China 65 330 1083
10 Huaqiang Golden Corridor City Plaza Main Tower Shenyang, China 66 327 1073
11 Mori JP Tower Tokyo, Japan 64 325.2 1067
12 The Brooklyn Tower New York City, United States 74 324.9 1066
= 13 Greenland Center 1 Hangzhou, China 67 310 1017
= 13 Greenland Center 2 Hangzhou, China 67 310 1017
15 Guangdong Landmark Building Shenzhen, China 62 303.1 994
16 The Assima Tower Kuwait City, Kuwait 65 301.6 990
17 One Za'abeel The Tower Dubai, United Arab Emirates 68 301.4 989
18 Luminary Tower Jakarta, Indonesia 64 301.2 988
= 19 Lusail Plaza Tower 3 Doha, Qatar 64 300.6 986
= 19 Lusail Plaza Tower 4 Doha, Qatar 64 300.6 986
21 Lokhandwala Minerva Mumbai, India 78 300.5 986
22 Taizhou Tiansheng Center Taizhou, China 66 299 981
23 Haikou World Trade Center Haikou, China 55 288 945
24 Xinchu Qingtian Plaza Tower 2 Changsha, China 62 285.8 938
= 25 Two Manhattan West New York City, United States 58 285 935
= 25 Hangzhou China Resources Liangzhu MixC Hangzhou, China 58 285 935
= 25 Zhenru Center Shanghai, China 53 285 935
28 Douyin Plaza Tower 1 Shanghai, China 51 284.9 935
29 Forte Tower 1 Dubai, United Arab Emirates 74 281.3 923
30 Hangzhou Wangchao Center Hangzhou, China 54 280 919
31 One City Centre Bangkok, Thailand 61 275.8 905
= 32 Bloomsvale Vinca Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 66 270 886
= 32 Bloomsvale Verbena Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 66 270 886
= 34 Grande Signature Residences Dubai, United Arab Emirates 78 267 876
= 34 Capital Tower 1 Moscow, Russia 61 267 876
= 34 Capital Tower 2 Moscow, Russia 61 267 876
= 34 Capital Tower 3 Moscow, Russia 61 267 876
38 Sixth & Guadalupe Austin, United States 66 266.7 875
39 Nest One Tashkent, Uzbekistan 51 266.5 874
40 Toranomon Hills Station Tower Tokyo, Japan 49 266 873
41 Riyad Bank Tower Riyadh, Saudi Arabia 53 264 866
42 Puyang Building Wuhan, China 58 263.2 864
= 43 China Resources Shenrun Building Shenzhen, China 54 262 860
= 43 Window of Shaanxi International Sports Xi’an, China 54 262 860
45 Fisherman's Wharf Shekou T1 Shenzhen, China 57 261 856
= 46 The Address Residences Dubai Opera Tower 1 Dubai, United Arab Emirates 65 260 853
= 46 Wuhan China Resources Center Tower 1 Wuhan, China 55 260 853
= 46 CITIC Urban Development Building Shenzhen, China 54 260 853
49 FIVE Beach Dubai, United Arab Emirates 56 258.8 849
50 Huaying Center Nanchang, China 59 258 846
51 Salesforce Tower Chicago, United States 60 254.6 835
52 Grand Hyatt Kunming Kunming, China 57 251 823
53 Foshan Entrepreneur Tower Foshan, China 53 250.5 822
54 Mohammed VI Tower Salé, Morocco 55 250 820
55 China Horoy Yicheng Center Tower 1 Shenzhen, China 55 247.6 812
56 Burj Al Mana Doha, Qatar 57 247.4 812
= 57 Aykon City Phase 2 Dubai, United Arab Emirates 62 246 807
= 57 DAMAC Maison de Ville Hotel Dubai, United Arab Emirates 62 246 807
59 China Resources Land Plaza Tower 1 Jinan, China 53 245.7 806
60 Shekou Prince Bay - Ruixi Residences Shenzhen, China 59 244 801
61 Greentown Excellence Aoxuan City Tower A Hangzhou, China 70 240.1 788
= 62 Mahall Bomonti Izmir Izmir, Turkey 58 240 787
= 62 China Horoy Yicheng Center Tower 2 Shenzhen, China 55 240 787
= 62 Hangzhou International Office Center A2.1 Hangzhou, China 51 240 787
= 62 Hangzhou International Office Center A2.2 Hangzhou, China 51 240 787
66 The Unicorn Bangkok, Thailand 51 239.7 786
67 Greentown Excellence Aoxuan City Tower B Hangzhou, China 66 239.5 786
= 68 West Side Place Tower D Melbourne, Australia 72 239 784
= 68 Walton Mansion Shenzhen, China 67 239 784
70 One Za'abeel The Residences Dubai, United Arab Emirates 59 238.3 782
71 Changchun Longxiang IBC Tower 1 Changchun, China 55 238 781
72 China Venture Capital Building A Shenzhen, China 52 237.8 780
73 Azabudai Hills Residence A Tokyo, Japan 54 237.2 778
= 74 Arte Cheras Mono Tower Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 85 235 771
= 74 Arte Cheras Charms Tower Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 85 235 771
= 74 La Maison by Fendi Casa Panama City, Panama 69 235 771
77 Suzhou Xingli Hotel Suzhou, China 57 233.9 767
78 Shunde Rural Bank Headquarters Foshan, China 49 233.4 766
79 Shangri-La by the Gardens Melbourne, Australia 59 231.6 760
80 Zhenjiang Rural Commercial Bank HQ Zhenjiang, China 231.3 759
81 Sugar Wharf Tower G Toronto, Canada 70 230.2 755
= 82 West Side Place Tower C Melbourne, Australia 70 230 755
= 82 The Address Residences Dubai Opera Tower 2 Dubai, United Arab Emirates 55 230 755
84 Logan Tianjin Plaza Tower 1 Foshan, China 58 229.1 752
85 Zhuhai Shizimen Convention Center Phase 2, Tower A Zhuhai, China 45 228 748
86 Jiaojiang Chamber of Commerce Building A Taizhou, China 50 227.4 746
87 Imperial Lexis KLCC Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 56 227 745
88 Shenzhen Science and Technology City Tower A Shenzhen, China 225.8 741
= 89 Salsette 27 Tower A Mumbai, India 64 225.1 739
= 89 Salsette 27 Tower B Mumbai, India 64 225.1 739
= 89 Ruiwan Tower Shenzhen, China 50 225.1 739
= 92 Trion @ Kuala Lumpur, Block A Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 66 225 738
= 92 Trion @ Kuala Lumpur, Block B Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 66 225 738
= 92 Maven at Capitol Commons Pasig, Philippines 62 225 738
= 92 Tokyu Kabukicho Tower Tokyo, Japan 48 225 738
= 92 Inxignia Puebla, Mexico 45 225 738
97 Fontainebleau Las Vegas Las Vegas, United States 67 224 735
98 Zhengrong Meixi Zique Terrace Tower 2 Changsha, China 55 223.8 734
99 Boya Times Center Hangzhou, China 50 223 732
100 KK TIME Tower 1 Shenzhen, China 53 222.6 730
101 YY Huanju Building Guangzhou, China 43 222.1 729
102 Vakif Bank Headquarters Tower 1 Istanbul, Turkey 43 221.3 726
= 103 Indiabulls Sky Suites Mumbai, India 52 220 722
= 103 Wuhan Kunyu International Center Wuhan, China 51 220 722
= 103 China Merchants Center Ganzhou, China 47 220 722
= 103 Yuexiu International Financial Center Tower A Guangzhou, China 47 220 722
= 103 Wuhan Hong Kong Center A Wuhan, China 47 220 722
108 Istanbul International Finance Center Ziraat Tower I Istanbul, Turkey 46 219.2 719
= 109 Yonghe Plaza Tower A Kunming, China 48 218.9 718
= 109 Yonghe Plaza Tower B Kunming, China 48 218.9 718
111 Sugar Wharf Tower F Toronto, Canada 66 218.4 717
= 112 Sky City at Borivali Tower B Mumbai, India 64 218 715
= 112 Sky City at Borivali Tower A Mumbai, India 64 218 715
= 112 Sky City at Borivali Tower C Mumbai, India 64 218 715
= 112 Sky City at Borivali Tower D Mumbai, India 64 218 715
116 Jinjiang Cultural and Creative Industry Center Phase I Chengdu, China 47 217.6 714
117 New Star Center Tower 1 Dalian, China 51 216 709
= 118 Lusail Plaza Tower 1 Doha, Qatar 46 215.6 707
= 118 Lusail Plaza Tower 2 Doha, Qatar 46 215.6 707
= 120 Century Centre Hefei, China 51 215 705
= 120 Mira 3-Chome 4-Chome Redevelopment 1 Tokyo, Japan 42 215 705
122 180 George North Tower Parramatta, Australia 66 213 699
123 Beaudry Los Angeles, United States 64 211.7 695
= 124 Sanyang Road Station Tower 2 Wuhan, China 46 211.4 694
= 124 Chow Tai Fook Headquarters North Tower Shenzhen, China 43 211.4 694
126 Landmark International Innovation Center Tower 2 Chengdu, China 45 211 692
127 Aspire Melbourne Melbourne, Australia 65 210.6 691
128 Winthrop Center Boston, United States 48 210.5 691
= 129 UNO Melbourne Melbourne, Australia 65 210 689
= 129 Mercure Hotel, Trion @ KL Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 56 210 689
= 129 Indiabulls Sky Forest Mumbai, India 51 210 689
= 129 Tangxia Village Project Guangzhou, China 48 210 689
= 129 Aspire Tower Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia 48 210 689
= 129 Kingdee Tower Shenzhen, China 44 210 689
135 China Resources Center Tower 2 Haikou, China 46 209 686
136 COFCO Qianhai Asia Pacific Headquarters Shenzhen, China 42 208.7 685
137 Halk Bank Headquarters Tower 1 Istanbul, Turkey 46 208 682
138 Huaqiang Science & Technology Plaza Shenzhen, China 46 207.6 681
= 139 Orix Towers East Dalian, China 42 207.1 679
= 139 Orix Towers West Dalian, China 42 207.1 679
141 Huafa Plaza 1 Zhuhai, China 48 207 679
142 Digital China Headquarters Tower 2 Shenzhen, China 43 206.4 677
143 OPPO Research & Development Headquarters Chengdu, China 43 206 676
144 Sungang MixC Market Hall Residential Tower 3 Shenzhen, China 55 205.6 675
145 Digital China Headquarters Tower 1 Shenzhen, China 47 205.1 673
= 146 Excellence Zhonghuan Centre 1 Changsha, China 44 205 673
= 146 China Merchants Magic Cube Tower 4 Chengdu, China 43 205 673
148 Estates at Acqualina Boutique North Tower Sunny Isles Beach, United States 52 204.8 672
= 149 China Merchants Magic Cube Tower 5 Chengdu, China 42 204.6 671
= 149 Sungang MixC Market Hall Residential Tower 1 Shenzhen, China 56 204.6 671
= 149 Sungang MixC Market Hall Residential Tower 2 Shenzhen, China 204.6 671
152 China Merchants Magic Cube Tower 3 Chengdu, China 49 204.2 670
= 153 Merchants Jiangshan Fenghua Tower 1 Wuhan, China 62 203.8 669
= 153 Merchants Jiangshan Fenghua Tower 2 Wuhan, China 62 203.8 669
155 8 Bishopsgate London, United Kingdom 51 203.7 668
= 156 Greentown Jindi Fengqi Tinglan Tower 8 Wuhan, China 58 202.9 666
= 156 Greentown Jindi Fengqi Tinglan Tower 9 Wuhan, China 58 202.9 666
158 China Merchants Magic Cube Tower 1 Chengdu, China 51 202.7 665
159 Changsha Nanshan Shilimeixi Building C1 Changsha, China 48 202.2 663
160 China Merchants Magic Cube Tower 2 Chengdu, China 52 202 663
161 Yuelai Convention and Exhibition Headquarters Base Chongqing, China 43 201.9 662
162 Nanjing Jiangbei Wondercity Tower 1 Nanjing, China 40 201.5 661
= 163 Oberoi Enigma Tower 1 Mumbai, India 59 201 659
= 163 Oberoi Enigma Tower 2 Mumbai, India 59 201 659
= 163 Park Origin Thonglor Tower C Bangkok, Thailand 59 201 659
= 166 Anju High Tech Garden North Tower 1 Shenzhen, China 61 200.6 658
= 166 Anju High-Tech Garden North Tower 3 Shenzhen, China 60 200.6 658
168 KWG Topchain Plaza Shenzhen, China 54 200.5 658
169 Downtown & Be Grand Reforma Mexico City, Mexico 50 200.3 657
= 170 M2 Mississauga, Canada 62 200 656
= 170 Victoria sur le Parc Montreal, Canada 58 200 656
= 170 Ping An Finance Center Tower 2 Jinan, China 43 200 656
= 170 Zhuhai Shizimen Convention Center Phase 2, Tower B Zhuhai, China 42 200 656
= 170 Yunquan Center 1 Jinan, China 42 200 656
= 170 Banque Nationale Headquarters Montreal, Canada 40 200 656
= 170 National Financial Information Building Beijing, China 39 200 656
= 170 Mingfa Fortune Center 1 Nanjing, China 200 656

2023 was the 10th year in a row that the world has completed 100+ buildings of at least 200 meters in height.

Key Worldwide Market Snapshots

Country Completions, 2023
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With 161 completed buildings of 200 meters or greater in height, Shenzhen, China is now home to 1 out of every 14 such buildings in the world.

City Completions, 2023
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City Records
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Eighteen cities got a new tallest building, as shown below. The number of cities completing a 200-meter-plus building (56) was down from 2022's fifty-eight different cities, a decrease of 3.4 percent from 2022, and from a peak of 68 cities in 2017.


There were also exciting new starts of a number of record-breaking or notable 200-meter-plus buildings in 2023. In Dubai, the 85-story Safa Two de GRISOGONO began construction on the final plots of the Aykon City project. In Brazil, Sao Paulo’s Alto das Nações Torre 2 began construction with a targeted completion of 2025. In Nashville, 1000 Church Street, the city’s first 200-meter-plus building, began construction late in the year.

The 10 Tallest Completions of 2023

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Tallet 10 of 2022 Merdeka 118 Wuhan Greenland Center Ping An Finance Center Tower 1 Huiyun Center Il Primo Tower Galaxy World Tower 1 Galaxy World Tower 2 Uptown Tower One Za'abeel Tower 1 Wuhan Yangtze River Shipping Center

Impact on the World's 100 Tallest

World's 100 Tallest by Region
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Asia (excluding the Middle East) continues to host the most buildings amongst the 100 Tallest, with 63 buildings qualifying for that description at the end of 2023. The Middle East and North America are close behind, having 18 and 14 buildings, respectively. Europe is home to five of the 100 Tallest, and Oceania, Africa, and South America have yet to have an entrant into the list post-2020.

World's 100 Tallest by Function
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At the end of 2023, all-office buildings comprised 36 of the 100 Tallest. Mixed-use buildings have been a plurality in this group since 2017 and now comprise 51, with hotel-only (3 buildings) and residential-only (10 buildings) making up the rest. "Other" uses, such as government-, religious-, and university-related functions, have not been amongst the world's 100 tallest since the Soviet Union's MV Lomonosov State University was eliminated 22 years ago.

World's 100 Tallest by Material
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The abundance of buildings that use multiple materials within the primary structural system continues to dominate the world's 100 tallest, with composite and mixed structures making up 62 percent of the list. All-concrete structures, while still a common solution, now make up just 26 percent of the 100 tallest. All-steel structures have been in decline since 1960, when they peaked at supporting 93 of the world's 100 tallest buildings; today, only nine of them sport an all-steel structure. The only all-steel structure to enter the 100 tallest in the last 26 years was 30 Hudson Yards, completed in 2019.

World's 100 Tallest Average Building Height
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The average height of all completions in 2023 was 242.9 meters—a 2.8 percent increase from 2022, which had an average completion height of 236.2 meters. In light of this increase, 2023's new additions to the World's 100 Tallest increased the threshold for entry to 409.7 meters in 2023. A total of seven buildings entered the 100 tallest in 2023: Merdeka 118, Kuala Lumpur, at 678.9 meters; Wuhan Greenland Center, Wuhan, at 475.6 meters; Ping An Finance Center Tower 1, Jinan, at 360 meters; Huiyun Center, Shenzhen, at 359.2 meters; Il Primo Tower, Dubai, at 356 meters; Galaxy World Tower 1, Shenzhen, at 356 meters; and Galaxy World Tower 2, Shenzhen, at 356 meters.

Predictions for 2024

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Of the buildings currently under construction or topped-out, 35 are supertalls (300 meters or higher); just 27 of those completing in 2024 would set a record, surpassing the 26 supertall completions in 2019 and indicating a return to the pre-COVID pace of construction. The 2024 list will most likely be led by the completion of International Land-Sea Center, Chongqing, at 458.2 meters. In light of the massive number of skyscrapers on deck, CTBUH predicts at least 150 buildings of 200 meters and higher to complete in 2024, with as many as 190 completing. Of these, we expect between 15 and 25 to be supertalls.