Bosco Verticale Torre D
Milan
Height

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

1
To Tip:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

86.2 m / 283 ft
2
Architectural:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

83.9 m / 275 ft
Floors

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

19
1 2 Bosco Verticale Torre D Outline
Height 83.87 m / 275 ft
Floors 19
Official Name

The current legal building name.

Bosco Verticale Torre D
Other Names

Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc.

Vertical Forest
Name of Complex

A complex is a group of buildings which are designed and built as pieces of a greater development.

Type

CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building
Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished
Completed, 2014
Country

The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of Country, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

City

The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Postal Code
20122
Function

A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

residential
Structural Material

Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

concrete
LEED Gold
Official Website
Height

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

Architectural
83.87 m / 275 ft
To Tip
86.2 m / 283 ft
Floors Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

19
Tower GFA

Tower GFA refers to the total gross floor area within the tower footprint, not including adjoining podiums, connected buildings or other towers within the development.

11,793 m² / 126,939 ft²
Construction Schedule
2008

Proposed

2010

Construction Start

2014

Completed

Developer
Architect
Structural Engineer
MEP Engineer

Interiors

LEED

Property Management

Vertical Transportation

Owner
Fondo Porta Nuova Isola
Developer
Architect
Structural Engineer
MEP Engineer
Contractor
Colombo Costruzioni S.p.A.; ZH Construction Company S.p.A.

Interiors

COIMA Image; Dolce Vita Capital S.r.l.

Landscape

Studio Emanuela Borio; Studio Laura Gatti

LEED

Property Management

Vertical Transportation

CTBUH Initiatives

17 June 2016 - CTBUH Research

Milan Celebrates the 2015 Best Tall Building: Bosco Verticale


21 December 2015 - Event

Videos

03 April 2018 | Milan

Devised by Boeri Studio and co-developed and managed by COIMA, Bosco Verticale represents an urbanistic and architectural challenge through a new integrated concept of sustainability....

Research

17 October 2016

Swinal Samant, National University of Singapore

The rise in sustainable skyscrapers and large-scale mixed-use buildings has seen the proliferation of atria and sky-courts worldwide due to their ability to simultaneously contribute...

About Bosco Verticale Torre D

Bosco Verticale, literally “Vertical Forest,” is one of the most intensive living green façades ever realized. It utilizes an architectural concept that replaces traditional cladding materials with screens of vegetation creating a distinct microclimate that works to improve the sustainability of the structure. This type of design creates an urban ecosystem that encourages interaction between the flora, fauna, and the apartments’ residents. The tower is home to 480 big and medium size trees, 250 small size trees, 11,000 groundcover plants and 5,000 shrubs, which is equivalent to an entire hectare of forest cover.

Along with creating a beautiful façade, the incorporation of vegetation into the structure adds a number of sustainable design elements. The foliage acts to improve air quality by filtering out dust and sequestering carbon, while also mitigating the urban heat island effect and reducing noise pollution. As a whole, the living green façade concurrently stimulates interaction with the surrounding environment while also protecting against it.

03 April 2018 | Milan

Devised by Boeri Studio and co-developed and managed by COIMA, Bosco Verticale represents an urbanistic and architectural challenge through a new integrated concept of sustainability....

18 October 2016 | Milan

October 18, 2016. Shenzhen, China.Carol Willis, The Skyscraper Musuem; Chao (Ivan) Wan, Tencent Holdings Limited; Jonathan Ward, NBBJ; Stefano Boeri, Stefano Boeri Architetti; Winy Maas,...

18 October 2016 | Milan

Stefano Boeri of Stefano Boeri Architetti is interviewed by Chris Bentley during the 2016 CTBUH China Conference. Stefano discusses the development of Bosco Verticale and...

18 October 2016 | Milan

Shijiazhuang, the capital of the Hebei province in northeastern China, is a metropolis of three million people. It forms part of the immense developing megalopolis...

22 December 2015 | Milan

An in depth look at the Bosco Verticale, as viewed from a drone, produced by www.droniair.it. Bosco Verticale, located in Milan, was the 2015 winner...

12 November 2015 | Milan

Yoram Eilon, Seinor Vice President, WSP | Parsons Brinckerhoff, Kenneth Lewis, Managing Partner, Skidmore, Owings & Merrill, Hin Kong Poon, Deputy Chief Development Officer, CapitaLand...

17 October 2016

Swinal Samant, National University of Singapore

The rise in sustainable skyscrapers and large-scale mixed-use buildings has seen the proliferation of atria and sky-courts worldwide due to their ability to simultaneously contribute...

17 October 2016

Rudi Scheuermann, Arup

Dense urban city environments consist of an agglomeration of tall buildings. The resilience of cities as a whole depends, among other components, on the resilience...

17 October 2016

Stefano Boeri, Stefano Boeri Architects

Shijiazhuang, the capital of the Hebei province in northeastern China, is a metropolis of three million people. It forms part of the immense developing megalopolis...

01 February 2015

Elena Giacomello, Università Iuav di Venezia

The Bosco Verticale “vertical forest” in Milan, Italy, takes the definition of “green skyscraper” to a new level, deploying more than 13,000 plants across 90+...

16 September 2014

Elena Giacomello, Iuav University of Venice

The possibility of creating green surfaces over the structures is an opportunity which is seen with increasing interest by planners and investors, due to the...

16 September 2014

CTBUH Research

The latest CTBUH technical guide, Green Walls in High-Rise Buildings, provides a thorough investigation of the methods used around the world for implementation of vertical...

17 June 2016

The Vertical Greenery research report on the high-rise vegetation of Bosco Verticale is now available to download for free.

21 December 2015

Milan Celebrates the 2015 Best Tall Building: Bosco Verticale

An event was held in Milan to celebrate Bosco Verticale receiving the “2015 Best Tall Building Europe” and the “2015 Best Tall Building Worldwide.”

30 June 2015

Council Report Examines the Pros and Cons of Vertical Greenery

The American Society of Civil Engineers reviews the CTBUH report on vertical greenery sponsored by Arup. Executive Director Antony Wood is interviewed on the report.

11 June 2013

Italian Team Wins Research Seed Funding

A research team from Iuav University of Venice, Italy, was named the winner of the CTBUH’s second research seed funding grant during the 2013 London Conference Dinner.