5445
Global
Height rank

De Rotterdam

Rotterdam
Height
1
To Tip:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

151.3 m / 496 ft
2
Architectural:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

151.3 m / 496 ft
3
Occupied:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

141.4 m / 464 ft
Floors
Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

45
Below Ground

The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

2
1 2 3 De Rotterdam Outline
Height 151.3 m / 496 ft
Floors 45
Official Name
The current legal building name.

De Rotterdam

Other Names
Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc.

Wilhelminakade

Type
CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building

Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished

Completed

Completion

2013

Country
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of Country, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Netherlands

City
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Rotterdam

Function
A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

office / residential / hotel

Structural Material
Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

concrete

Official Website

De Rotterdam

Height
Architectural
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

151.3 m / 496 ft

To Tip
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).
151.3 m / 496 ft
Occupied
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.
141.4 m / 464 ft
Floors Above Ground
The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

45

Floors Below Ground
The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

2

# of Apartments
Number of Apartments refers to the total number of residential units (including both rental units and condominiums) contained within a particular building.

240

# of Hotel Rooms
Number of Hotel Rooms refers to the total number of hotel rooms contained within a particular building.

278

# of Parking Spaces
Number of Parking Spaces refers to the total number of car parking spaces contained within a particular building.

670

# of Elevators
Number of Elevators refers to the total number of elevator cars (not shafts) contained within a particular building (including public, private and freight elevators).

24

Top Elevator Speed
Top Elevator Speed refers to the top speed capable of being achieved by an elevator within a particular building, measured in meters per second.

6 m/s

Tower GFA
Tower GFA refers to the total gross floor area within the tower footprint, not including adjoining podiums, connected buildings or other towers within the development.

162,000 m² / 1,743,753 ft²

Rankings
#
5445
Tallest in the World
#
224
Tallest in Europe
#
5
Tallest in Netherlands
#
5
Tallest in Rotterdam
#
893
Tallest Mixed-use Building in the World
#
50
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Europe
#
1
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Netherlands
#
1
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Rotterdam
#
3035
Tallest Concrete Building in the World
#
158
Tallest Concrete Building in Europe
#
3
Tallest Concrete Building in Netherlands
#
3
Tallest Concrete Building in Rotterdam
Construction Schedule
1998

Proposed

2009

Construction Start

2013

Completed

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Façade Maintenance
Vertical Transportation
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Elevator
Façade Maintenance Equipment
Sealants
Developer
MAB; OVG Real Estate
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Office for Metropolitan Architecture
Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Deerns; Techniplan Adviseurs; Valstar Simonis
Project Manager

The CTBUH lists a project manager when a specific firm has been commissioned to oversee this aspect of a tall building’s design/construction. When the project management efforts are handled by the developer, main contract, or architect, this field will be omitted.

De Rotterdam CV; DVP
Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Züblin
Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Acoustics
DGMR Raadgevende Ingenieurs B.V.
Code
ABT
Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Façade Maintenance
Fire
DGMR Raadgevende Ingenieurs B.V.
Vertical Transportation
Wind
DGMR Raadgevende Ingenieurs B.V.
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Cladding
TGM
Elevator
Façade Maintenance Equipment
HVAC
Roodenburg
Sealants

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building Europe 2014 Winner

2014 CTBUH Awards

Videos

06 November 2014 | Rotterdam

2014 Awards - Session 3 Q&A

Thursday, 6th November 2014 Chicago, USA. Leslie Shepherd, Chief Architect, General Services Administration, James Cutler, Founding Partner, Cutler Anderson Architects, Michael Goldrick, Project Management Director,...

About De Rotterdam

De Rotterdam is conceived as a vertical city: three interconnected mixed-use towers accommodating offices, apartments, a hotel, conference facilities, shops, restaurants, and cafes. The towers are part of the ongoing redevelopment of the old harbor district of Wilhelminapier, next to the Erasmus Bridge, and aim to reinstate the vibrant urban activity – trade, transport, leisure – once familiar to the neighborhood. De Rotterdam is named after one of the ships on the Holland America Line, which departed from the Wilhelminapier in decades past, carrying thousands of Europeans emigrating to the US.

De Rotterdam consists of three connected towers that appear as stacked and shifted volumes upon a base plinth. The façade design has been kept neutral and transparent; the dynamic appearance of the building is determined by the varied day cycles of the different programs. The deep mullions allow the glazed facades to appear more open or closed, depending on the perspective.

De Rotterdam is an exercise in formal interpretation that is at once reminiscent of an imported mid-century American skyscraper, but epitomizes the off-center experimentalism of modern Dutch art of the foregoing century. The nighttime twinkling of the lights indicating different programs throughout the day lends dynamism and contributes to the humanization of the monoliths. It is as if the moai of Easter Island were constantly craning their necks and raising their eyebrows at the change all around.

At ground floor level, a ceiling height of 8.5 meters ensures a smooth transition between exterior and interior, while loading areas are kept, as much as possible, to other levels. The street-side entrance zone is separated from the waterfront restaurant zone by only a relatively small core, and a large central lobby ensures that a visual connection between street and waterfront remains. The public program on the upper floors of the plinth meets the ground floor in a large atrium; this void extends externally between the low-rise tower volumes to 85 meters’ height. Once within the towers, views between the hotel, office and residential volumes continue the theme of transparency.

The architectural concept produces more than sheer size: urban density and diversity – both in the program and the form – are the guiding principles of the project. De Rotterdam’s stacked towers are arranged in a subtly irregular cluster that refuses to resolve into a singular form, and produces intriguing new views from different perspectives. Similarly, the definition of the building changes according to its multiple uses internally.

The various programs of this urban complex are organized into distinct blocks, providing both clarity and synergy: residents and office workers alike can use the fitness facilities, restaurants, and conference rooms of the hotel. These private users of the building have contact with the general public on the ground floor, with its waterfront cafes. The lobbies for the offices, hotel, and apartments are located in the plinth – a long elevated hall that serves as a general traffic hub for De Rotterdam's wide variety of users.

Comprehensive building management, including an energy monitoring system, has been employed to ensure maximum efficiency throughout De Rotterdam. For the purpose of energy supply, a collective generation system was developed, which feeds all the functions in the building. Power is generated via district heating and co-generation with biofuel, while water from the adjacent Maas river is used for cooling. The temperature system additionally uses low-temperature heating and high-temperature cooling, heat exchangers for heat recovery ventilation, and fan speed to control air handing.

Maximum use of daylight is supplemented by efficient artificial lighting, using high-efficiency reflectors. Appropriate lighting methods have been selected for the various functions, with automatic daylight and motion control in the office areas, and LEDs in the public zones. Sustainability is further improved with water saving taps and reservoirs, and efficient elevators using energy recovery.

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building Europe 2014 Winner

2014 CTBUH Awards

06 November 2014 | Rotterdam

2014 Awards - Session 3 Q&A

Thursday, 6th November 2014 Chicago, USA. Leslie Shepherd, Chief Architect, General Services Administration, James Cutler, Founding Partner, Cutler Anderson Architects, Michael Goldrick, Project Management Director,...

06 November 2014 | Rotterdam

Best Tall Building Europe: Three Become One: Formal Interpretations: De Rotterdam

De Rotterdam is conceived as a vertical city: three interconnected mixed-use towers accommodating offices, apartments, a hotel, conference facilities, shops, restaurants, and cafes. The towers...

06 November 2014 | Rotterdam

CTBUH 13th Annual Awards Dinner

The 13th Annual Awards Ceremony & Dinner was held in Mies van der Rohe's iconic Crown Hall, on the Illinois Institute of Technology campus, Chicago....

06 November 2014 | Rotterdam

Interview: De Rotterdam

Jos Melchers, MAB Development, and Ellen van Loon, OMA, are interviewed by Chris Bentley regarding the Best Tall Building Europe Winner, De Rotterdam, during the...

06 November 2014 | Rotterdam

Monthly Video: De Rotterdam

Thursday 6th November 2014. Chicago, IL. Jos Melchers, MAB Development, and Ellen van Loon, OMA, are interviewed by Chris Bentley regarding the Best Tall Building...