184
Global
Height rank

Abeno Harukas

Osaka
Height
1
To Tip:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).

300 m / 984 ft
2
Architectural:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

300 m / 984 ft
3
Occupied:

Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.

287.6 m / 944 ft
1 2 3 Abeno Harukas Outline
Floors
Above Ground

The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

60
Below Ground

The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

5
Height 300.0 m / 984 ft
Floors 60
Official Name
The current legal building name.

Abeno Harukas

Other Names
Other names the building has commonly been known as, including former names, common informal names, local names, etc.

Abenobashi Terminal Tower

Type
CTBUH collects data on two major types of tall structures: 'Buildings' and 'Telecommunications / Observation Towers.' A 'Building' is a structure where at least 50% of the height is occupied by usable floor area. A 'Telecommunications / Observation Tower' is a structure where less than 50% of the structure's height is occupied by usable floor area. Only 'Buildings' are eligible for the CTBUH 'Tallest Buildings' lists.

Building

Status
Completed
Architecturally Topped Out
Structurally Topped Out
Under Construction
Proposed
On Hold
Never Completed
Vision
Competition Entry
Canceled
Proposed Renovation
Under Renovation
Renovated
Under Demolition
Demolished

Completed

Completion

2014

Country
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of Country, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Japan

City
The CTBUH follows the United Nations's definition of City, and thus uses the lists and codes established by that organization.

Osaka

Function
A single-function tall building is defined as one where 85% or more of its usable floor area is dedicated to a single usage. Thus a building with 90% office floor area would be said to be an "office" building, irrespective of other minor functions it may also contain.

A mixed-use tall building contains two or more functions (or uses), where each of the functions occupy a significant proportion of the tower's total space. Support areas such as car parks and mechanical plant space do not constitute mixed-use functions. Functions are denoted on CTBUH "Tallest Building" lists in descending order, e.g., "hotel/office" indicates hotel function above office function.

hotel / office / retail

Structural Material
Steel
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from steel. Note that a building of steel construction with a floor system of concrete planks or concrete slab on top of steel beams is still considered a “steel” structure as the concrete elements are not acting as the primary structure.

Reinforced Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning systems are constructed from concrete which has been cast in place and utilizes steel reinforcement bars.

Precast Concrete
Both the main vertical/lateral structural elements and the floor spanning system are constructed from steel reinforced concrete which has been precast as individual components and assembled together on-site.

Mixed-Structure
Utilizes distinct systems (e.g. steel, concrete, timber), one on top of the other. For example, a steel/concrete indicates a steel structural system located on top of a concrete structural system, with the opposite true of concrete/steel.

Composite
A combination of materials (e.g. steel, concrete, timber) are used together in the main structural elements. Examples include buildings which utilize: steel columns with a floor system of reinforced concrete beams; a steel frame system with a concrete core; concrete-encased steel columns; concrete-filled steel tubes; etc. Where known, the CTBUH database breaks out the materials used in a composite building’s core, columns, and floor spanning separately.

steel

Official Website

Abeno Harukas

Height
Architectural
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the architectural top of the building, including spires, but not including antennae, signage, flag poles or other functional-technical equipment. This measurement is the most widely utilized and is employed to define the Council on Tall Buildings and Urban Habitat (CTBUH) rankings of the "World's Tallest Buildings."

300.0 m / 984 ft

To Tip
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest point of the building, irrespective of material or function of the highest element (i.e., including antennae, flagpoles, signage and other functional-technical equipment).
300.0 m / 984 ft
Occupied
Height is measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance to the highest occupied floor within the building.
287.6 m / 944 ft
Observatory
287.6 m / 944 ft
Helipad
Height, measured from the level of the lowest, significant, open-air, pedestrian entrance, to the building's helipad.
300.0 m / 984 ft
Floors Above Ground
The number of floors above ground should include the ground floor level and be the number of main floors above ground, including any significant mezzanine floors and major mechanical plant floors. Mechanical mezzanines should not be included if they have a significantly smaller floor area than the major floors below. Similarly, mechanical penthouses or plant rooms protruding above the general roof area should not be counted. Note: CTBUH floor counts may differ from published accounts, as it is common in some regions of the world for certain floor levels not to be included (e.g., the level 4, 14, 24, etc. in Hong Kong).

60

Floors Below Ground
The number of floors below ground should include all major floors located below the ground floor level.

5

# of Hotel Rooms
Number of Hotel Rooms refers to the total number of hotel rooms contained within a particular building.

360

# of Parking Spaces
Number of Parking Spaces refers to the total number of car parking spaces contained within a particular building.

190

# of Elevators
Number of Elevators refers to the total number of elevator cars (not shafts) contained within a particular building (including public, private and freight elevators).

56

Top Elevator Speed
Top Elevator Speed refers to the top speed capable of being achieved by an elevator within a particular building, measured in meters per second.

6 m/s

Tower GFA
Tower GFA refers to the total gross floor area within the tower footprint, not including adjoining podiums, connected buildings or other towers within the development.

212,000 m² / 2,281,949 ft²

Rankings
#
184
Tallest in the World
#
110
Tallest in Asia
#
1
Tallest in Japan
#
1
Tallest in Osaka
#
86
Tallest Mixed-use Building in the World
#
60
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Asia
#
1
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Japan
#
1
Tallest Mixed-use Building in Osaka
#
13
Tallest Steel Building in the World
#
4
Tallest Steel Building in Asia
#
1
Tallest Steel Building in Japan
#
1
Tallest Steel Building in Osaka
Construction Schedule
2010

Construction Start

2014

Completed

Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Owner/Developer
Kintetsu Corporation
Architect
Design

Usually involved in the front end design, with a "typical" condition being that of a leadership role through either Schematic Design or Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Structural Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

MEP Engineer
Design

The Design Engineer is usually involved in the front end design, typically taking the leadership role in the Schematic Design and Design Development, and then a monitoring role through the CD and CA phases.

Contractor
Main Contractor

The main contractor is the supervisory contractor of all construction work on a project, management of sub-contractors and vendors, etc. May be referred to as "Construction Manager," however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Main Contractor" exclusively.

Takenaka Corporation; Okumura Corporation; Obayashi Corporation; Dai Nippon Construction; The Zenitaka Corporation
Other Consultant

Other Consultant refers to other organizations which provided significant consultation services for a building project (e.g. wind consultants, environmental consultants, fire and life safety consultants, etc).

Façade

These are firms that consult on the design of a building's façade. May often be referred to as "Cladding," "Envelope," "Exterior Wall," or "Curtain Wall" Consultant, however, for consistency CTBUH uses the term "Façade Consultant" exclusively.

Interiors
Infix Design Inc.; Kanko Kikaku Sekkeisha; Kinso; Nihon Sekkei
Landscape
Studio on Site
Lighting
Bonbori Lighting Architect & Associates, Inc.
Way Finding
Hiromura Design Office
Material Supplier

Material Supplier refers to organizations which supplied significant systems/materials for a building project (e.g. elevator suppliers, facade suppliers, etc).

Cladding
LIXIL Corporation
Elevator
Hitachi, Ltd.; Mitsubishi Elevator and Escalator; Toshiba Elevator and Building Systems Corporation (TELC)
Steel
JFE Steel Corporation; Kobe Steel, Ltd; Nippon Steel & Sumitomo Metal Corporation

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building Asia & Australasia 2014 Award of Excellence

2014 CTBUH Awards

CTBUH Initiatives

CTBUH Study Examines Tallest Buildings with Dampers

22 August 2018 - CTBUH Research

Seven Cities Winter Spaces Walking Tour

29 January 2015 - Event

Research

25 April 2019

Tall Buildings in Numbers: World's Tallest Offset-Core Buildings

CTBUH Research

There has long been an interest in separating the service cores of tall buildings from the main programmed areas – to create more column-free, easily-configured...

About Abeno Harukas

Abeno Harukas' significance extends to its anchoring role in the urban core of one of the country’s great cities, and for its novel use of greenery.

Abeno -Tennnoji railway station, which occupies the podium of the building, is a high-density hub where the number of passengers exceeds 70,000 a day. Abeno Harukas connects the metropolitan railway network to a high-density urban complex, incorporating a department store, art museum, school, hospital, office, hotel, observatory, and rooftop gardens. This multi-purpose network of services maximizes the performance of each function, and connects these programs with various vertical and horizontal circulation paths. In this compact and dense complex, the varied activities of 110 ,000 people energize not only this area, but also the metropolitan area along the railway network extending from the tower.

Sited in a high-density urban area, the shape of the large volumes comprising the tower were determined through various factors, such as impact of wind on the surrounding area, relation to the scale of the surrounding neighborhood, and circulation of occupants. The asymmetric structural megatruss, optimized to the program of the building, forms the void spaces, which offer space for vertical transportation as well as air circulation.

Three volumes with different floor areas are shifted and stacked, drawing sunlight and wind to the center void between offices, creating three-dimensional, cascading gardens. Further gardens placed on rooftop setbacks reconcile the vertical urban landscape with an adjacent park, while the semi-public gardens at the top of each volume are visible through the glass façade, forming a psychological connection to the ecology of the city. The diverse urban activities generated by the confluence of various functions inside transmit to the exterior through the transparent curtain wall. The scale of the tower is related to the existing micro-urban tissue through the use of public pedestrian paths on various floor levels.

Programmatic, structural, and environmental imperatives all intersect productively in this design. The truss frame installed on the upper levels, inspired by the central pillar design of traditional Japanese pagodas, also stabilizes the tower to withstand a 2,000-year earthquake. The voids inside the building are useful for ventilation and heat exchange. The department store’s void channels waste heat inside ceilings and sends the cooled exhaust air to the upper floor’s cooling tower by way of a buoyancy ventilation system. Voids in the office area intake natural light and wind to the central core section and render perimeter hallways as portico-like spaces. At night, cool fresh air is taken into a cool storage system, while hot air is purged.

Single-use buildings usually concentrate energy consumption during certain hours of the day. However, the multifunctional design of Abeno Harukas improves thermal efficiency and equalizes overall energy consumption, contributing to a significant reduction in CO2 emissions. The building’s multi-use design facilitates the incorporation of expansive energy-saving technologies. Waste heat generated throughout the year by air conditioning, essential to department store operations, is reused to produce hot water for the hotel above. Garbage from the restaurants and hotel facilities is effectively used for bio-gas power generation. As a result, CO2 emissions will be reduced by 35% compared with comparable buildings.

CTBUH Awards & Distinctions

Best Tall Building Asia & Australasia 2014 Award of Excellence

2014 CTBUH Awards

25 April 2019

Tall Buildings in Numbers: World's Tallest Offset-Core Buildings

CTBUH Research

There has long been an interest in separating the service cores of tall buildings from the main programmed areas – to create more column-free, easily-configured...

04 February 2016

The Other Side of Tall Buildings: The Urban Habitat

Daniel Safarik, CTBUH

A growing number of tall buildings recognized by the CTBUH, through its international awards programs and research, are noteworthy not so much because of their...

01 September 2015

Construction of a 300-Meter Vertical City: Abeno Harukas

Kenichi Mizutani, Kiyoaki Hirakawa & Masato Nakashima, Takenaka Corporation

Abeno Harukas is the tallest building in Japan and is located in Abeno, which is one of the three main railway transport nodes in Osaka....

20 May 2015

Forging a Supertall Compact City

Tetsuo Harada & Masaomi Yonezu, Takenaka Corporation

Abeno Harukas is the tallest building in Japan and one of the world’s tallest buildings directly over a railway terminal. It connects the metropolitan area...

31 December 2014

Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2014

Daniel Safarik, Antony Wood, Marty Carver & Marshall Gerometta, CTBUH

An All-Time Record 97 Buildings of 200 Meters or Higher Completed in 2014 and 2014 showed further shifts towards Asia, and also surprising developments in...

11 June 2014

Highest Helipads

CTBUH Research

In this installment of Tall Buildings in Numbers, CTBUH considers how helipads are used on skyscrapers, and which are the highest in the world. The...

01 March 2014

Performance-based Design of 300 m Vertical City “Abeno Harukas”

Kiyoaki Hirakawa, Kazuhiro Saburi, Souichirou Kushima & Kazutaka Kojima, Takenaka Corporation

In designing a 300 meter high skyscraper expected to be the tallest building in Japan, an earthquake-ridden country, full-scale performance based design was launched to...

01 September 2013

Performance-based Wind-resistant Design for High-rise Structures in Japan

Masayoshi Nakai & Kiyoaki Hirakawa, Takenaka Corporation; Masayuki Yamanaka & Hirofumi Okuda, Obayashi Corporation; & Atsuo Konishi, Nikken Sekkei

This paper introduces the current status of high-rise building design in Japan, with reference to some recent projects. Firstly, the design approval system and procedures...

19 September 2012

Abeno Harukas: Vertical City Toward Natural Symbiosis and Sustainability

Tetsuo Harada, Kiyoaki Hirakawa & Yoshifumi Sakaguchi, Takenaka Corporation

Abeno Harukas is a 300 meter tall skyscraper scheduled for completion in Spring 2014; it will be the tallest building in Japan. Sited in a...

22 August 2018

CTBUH Study Examines Tallest Buildings with Dampers

CTBUH has released a Tall Buildings in Numbers (TBIN) interactive data study on the world's tallest buildings with dampers.

29 January 2015

Seven Cities Winter Spaces Walking Tour

The new CTBUH Urban Habitat / Urban Design Committee organized a highly successful Winter Spaces Walking Tour in seven cities around the world.

31 December 2014

CTBUH Releases Year in Review: Tall Trends of 2014

An All-Time Record 97 Buildings of 200 Meters or Higher Completed in 2014 and 2014 showed further shifts towards Asia, and also surprising developments in building functions and structural materials.

1 March 2014

International Journal of High-Rise Buildings Vol. 3 No. 1

The International Journal of High-Rise Buildings, Volume 3: Number 1 includes 8 papers focusing on pure research content and investigations in tall building design.